Soil mechanics formula pdf

Soil mechanics formula pdf

Soil mechanics is a branch of soil physics and applied mechanics that describes the behavior of soils. It differs from fluid mechanics and solid mechanics in the sense that soils consist of a heterogeneous mixture of fluids usually air and water and particles usually claysiltsandand gravel but soil may also contain organic solids and other matter.

Soil mechanics is used to analyze the deformations of and flow of fluids within natural and man-made structures that are supported on or made of soil, or structures that are buried in soils. Principles of soil mechanics are also used in related disciplines such as engineering geology, geophysical engineeringcoastal engineeringagricultural engineeringhydrology and soil physics.

This article describes the genesis and composition of soil, the distinction between pore water pressure and inter-granular effective stresscapillary action of fluids in the soil pore spaces, soil classificationseepage and permeabilitytime dependent change of volume due to squeezing water out of tiny pore spaces, also known as consolidationshear strength and stiffness of soils.

The shear strength of soils is primarily derived from friction between the particles and interlocking, which are very sensitive to the effective stress. The primary mechanism of soil creation is the weathering of rock.

All rock types igneous rockmetamorphic rock and sedimentary rock may be broken down into small particles to create soil. Weathering mechanisms are physical weathering, chemical weathering, and biological weathering [1] [2] [3] Human activities such as excavation, blasting, and waste disposal, may also create soil.

Over geologic time, deeply buried soils may be altered by pressure and temperature to become metamorphic or sedimentary rock, and if melted and solidified again, they would complete the geologic cycle by becoming igneous rock.

soil mechanics formula pdf

Physical weathering includes temperature effects, freeze and thaw of water in cracks, rain, wind, impact and other mechanisms.

Chemical weathering includes dissolution of matter composing a rock and precipitation in the form of another mineral. Clay minerals, for example can be formed by weathering of feldsparwhich is the most common mineral present in igneous rock. The most common mineral constituent of silt and sand is quartzalso called silicawhich has the chemical name silicon dioxide.

The reason that feldspar is most common in rocks but silica is more prevalent in soils is that feldspar is much more soluble than silica. SiltSandand Gravel are basically little pieces of broken rocks. According to the Unified Soil Classification Systemsilt particle sizes are in the range of 0.

Gravel particles are broken pieces of rock in the size range 4. Particles larger than gravel are called cobbles and boulders. Soil deposits are affected by the mechanism of transport and deposition to their location. Soils that are not transported are called residual soils —they exist at the same location as the rock from which they were generated. Decomposed granite is a common example of a residual soil.

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The common mechanisms of transport are the actions of gravity, ice, water, and wind. Wind blown soils include dune sands and loess.

Water carries particles of different size depending on the speed of the water, thus soils transported by water are graded according to their size. Silt and clay may settle out in a lake, and gravel and sand collect at the bottom of a river bed.

Wind blown soil deposits aeolian soils also tend to be sorted according to their grain size. Erosion at the base of glaciers is powerful enough to pick up large rocks and boulders as well as soil; soils dropped by melting ice can be a well graded mixture of widely varying particle sizes.Properties of Soil 2.

Classification of Soil 3. Effective Stress 4. Permeability and Seepage 5. Stress Distribution in Soil.

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Karl Terzaghi is the father of Soil Mechanics. His first book on Soil Mechanics is Earabaumechanics published in 2. The process of formation of soild is termed as Pedologenesis 3. The soil is formed due to weathering of rocks, which may be carried out either physically or chemically.

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Physical agency involved in weathering of rocks includes running water, ice, wind, gravity, etc and chemical agencies involved in weathering includes oxidation, reduction, carbonation etc.

If the weathered rock material is retained over parent rock then it is termed as residual soil and if it is transported then it is termed as transported soil 5. Geological steps involved in the formation of soil are : a. Weathering b.

Transportation c. Deposition d. Upheaval Continues from a again. Alluvial Soil : Deposited from suspension in running water weathering agent is running water, transportation soil.

This type of soil is found along the length of river. Lacustrine Soil : Formed due to deposition from suspension in fresh still water from lake. Marine Soil : Deposition from suspension in sea water. Aeoline Soil : It is the soil which is transported by wind 5. Loess Soil : It is uniformly graded wind blown silt, slightly cemented due to calcium compound or montmorillonite a clay mineral When it is wet, it becomes soft and compressible because cementing action is lost and is collapsed.Load Shear Failure For loose sand and soft clay.

General Shear Failure Strip footing. Ressner Formula. Nagaraj and Murthy. Compression Index: 1. Gross Allowable Load. Depth Factor:. Learn more about Scribd Membership Home.

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Start Free Trial Cancel anytime. Uploaded by zeref refere. Document Information click to expand document information Date uploaded Sep 15, Did you find this document useful? Is this content inappropriate? Report this Document. Flag for inappropriate content. Download Now. Related titles. Carousel Previous Carousel Next. Jump to Page. Search inside document. When q Pc 6. Ressner Formula 4. Ip Siu Hei. Karthik Palaniswamy. Chidi Henry. Kiata Wayuyab. Rosnei Stefani.

Min Miyn. End End.Related Calculator: Flow Rate. Related Calculator: Fluid Pressure. Related Calculator: Absolute Pressure. Related Calculator: Bulk Modulus. Related Calculator: Compressibility Calculator.

soil mechanics formula pdf

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Sum of discharge head, suction lift, and friction loss. Related Calculator: Water Horsepower. Related Calculator: Pump Efficiency.

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Related Calculator: Gutter Interception Capacity. Related Calculator: Gutter Capture Efficiency. Related Calculator: Gutter Carryover. Related Calculator: Reynolds Number. Related Calculator: Cauchy Number. Related Calculator: Cavitation Number. Related Calculator: Eckert Number. Related Calculator: Euler Number. Related Calculator: Froude Number.

Related Calculator: Knudsen Number. Related Calculator: Lewis Number. Related Calculator: Mach Number. Related Calculator: Nusselt Number.Posted By: JP August 13, Nearly more than 1.

In order to crack the GATE exam we need to focus on systematically and well planned manner. The study materials also very important for GATE exam to crack. These will really enhance your studying and helps to crack GATE exam with good marks. Question No: 1. The void ratio and specific gravity of a soil are 0. Correct Option: C Question No: 2. The avoid ratios at the densest, loosest and the natural states of a sand deposit are 0.

The relative density of the deposit is. Question No: 3. The liquid limit and plastic limit of the finer fraction was found to be 45 and 33 percents respectively. The group symbol of the given soil as per IS: is.

Soil Mechanics

Question No: 4. If the sensitivity of the clay is 20, the corresponding remoulded compressive strength is. Question No: 5.

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The ratio of saturated unit weight to dry unit weight of dry unit weight is 1. If the specific gravity of solids Gs is 2. Correct Option: b 0. The bulk density and dry density of this soil are. Ans: The bulk density is equal to saturated density as the soil is in saturated condition. Question No: 7. In its natural condition, a soil sample has a mass of 1. After being completely dried in an oven, the mass of the sample is 1.

Specific gravity G is 2. The degree of saturation of the soil i s:. Question No: 8. The percentage of soil fraction with grain size finger than 0. The activity ratio of the soil sample is. Question No: 9. What is the ratio of void ratios eA :eB. Question No: The natural void ratio of sand sample is 0. If its void ratio in the loosest state is 0.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Soil Mechanics -I Hydrometer Analysis contd. Sushant Singh. Deepankar Choudhury Dept.

Bouyoucos and later modified by Prof. This concept is used in Hydrometer analysis to obtain grain size distribution. Reading increases in downward direction towards hydrometer bulb.

The particles reach constant terminal velocity within a few seconds after they are allowed to fall. Since particles are not spherical, the concept of an equivalent diameter has been introduced.

A particle is said to have an equivalent diameter De, if a sphere of diameter D having the same unit weight as the particle, has the same velocity of fall as the particle. It may be noted that spheres of diameter larger than 0. Test procedure The suggested procedure for conducting the hydrometer test is as follows: 1.

Take 60 g or less dry sample from the soil passing through the No. Allow the soil mixture to stand for about 1 hour. At the end of the soaking period transfer the mixture to a dispersion cup and add distilled water until the cup is about two-thirds full. Mix for about 2 min 4.


After mixing, transfer all the contents of the dispersion cup to the sedimentation cylinder, being careful not to lose any material Now add temperature-stabilized water to fill the cylinder to the mL mark 5. Mix the suspension well by placing the palm of the hand over the open end and turning the cylinder upside down and back for a period of 1 min. Start the timer immediately after setting the cylinder. Insert the hydrometer into the suspension just about 20 seconds before the elapsed time of 2 min.

Take the temperature reading. Remove the hydrometer and thermometer and place both of them in the control jar 7. The hydrometer readings are taken at the top level of the meniscus in both the sedimentation and control jars 9.

Steps 6 through 8 are repeated by taking hydrometer and temperature readings at elapsed times of 4, 8, 16, 30, 60 min. In soils, the finer particles are never truly spherical. They are usually flaky or needle-shaped. If the specific gravity of solids used in the suspension is different from 2. Related Papers. By Dexter Jay Domingo.Rigondeaux has also proven susceptible to flash knockdowns at both 118 and 122 pounds.

Speed: It's going to be fun finding out exactly who has the edge. While Rigondeaux is naturally smaller and has long relied on a lightning quick counter left hand, he's also 37 and has been a victim of inactivity. Lomachenko, meanwhile, appeared to shock featherweight Gary Russell Jr. Technique: Just how good are these two from a technical standpoint. Let it be known, from now until the end of their respective careers, that this is the only time either one will enter a fight without owning a dominant advantage in this category.

soil mechanics formula pdf

That's what makes this fight unique to any other. Defense: Part of what makes this matchup so fun is that both are polar opposites in terms of their natural inclinations. Lomachenko is a flashy offensive whiz who uses footwork and awkward angles to break opponents down.

Rigondeaux is more comfortable avoiding punches and exposing his opponent than necessarily making him pay. Like his contemporary Floyd Mayweather, "El Chacal" is in the conversation among the greatest defensive fighters who have ever laced up gloves. Intangibles: Lomachenko is in the midst of his physical prime at 29 and has been both active and ambitious in his short career, having fought for a world title in his second pro bout.

Rigondeaux is a different story. In fact, there are more things going against him than for him in this fight, including age and weight. As someone who identifies more as an in-ring artist than prizefighter, Rigondeaux's brilliance doesn't always lend itself to easy translation (and appreciation) by judges.


Lomachenko has promised to walk through Rigondeaux "like a tank" and knock him out. While the bold proclamation births the potential for entertainment, it also threatens to summon a dangerous version of Rigondeaux only seen the rare times opponents have forced it out of him through pressure. What should decide early what kind of fight this turns out to be is just how much the difference in size ends up playing a factor. If Rigondeaux is able to make Lomachenko pay for closing distance without without being defied dramatically by age and his own chin, this one has all the makings to be high-speed chess at its finest.

soil mechanics formula pdf

Lomachenko isn't big for 130 pounds and doesn't employ a style (similar to how Orlando Salido leaned on him in his lone pro defeat) where the extra weight will make much of a difference.